Gingham is made from lightweight, plain woven cotton. Poly cotton gingham is lighter and more transparent than 100% cotton gingham. Both kinds are used for dresses, skirts, and shirts for both adults and children.
Perhaps the most famous use of gingham in pop culture is the blue gingham dress worn by Dorothy Gale (Judy Garland) in The Wizard of Oz.
A general rule is that the larger the check, the less formal the article of clothing. Since it’s fairly thin, you will probably want to add a lining to certain garments.
Decorations like curtains and tablecloths are also sometimes made with gingham. For window treatments, adding a lining will help keep the gingham from fading due to exposure to sunlight.
Gingham is easy to machine launder with warm water, using a gentler cycle can help prevent wrinkles. Bleaching is not recommended. You can iron gingham fabric with medium/high heat and the steam setting on.
Before sewing you may want to pre-wash gingham because it may shrink.